But the release of the hands provided a new safety mechanism for the pups. These could escape predators in the arms of their mothers or fathers. This would lead to greater dependence on parents and a narrowing of the mother-child relationship. Fostering continued contact and learning mechanisms. Perhaps it could also lead to a tightening of relationships between siblings. Which would lead to the structuring of family groups.
It was assumed that standing would have arisen in response to the need to release hands. The selective pressure to generalize this form of locomotion would therefore be in technology and. As an additional favorable consequence, the possibility of transporting the young or bringing food to other members of the group would have strengthened the standing.
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But the findings B2B Email List by Donald Johanson and . Timothy White at the Hadar site in Ethiopia during the 1970s led to the rejection of this hypothesis. The anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis and the 3.8 million-year-old footprints of . Laetoli attested that more than 3 million years ago, these hominins had walked upright, and at that time. There was no reliable data to argue that this species had made tools.
c) discarded the hypothesis of the use of the hands “freed” from locomotion. And knowing that the australopithecines of East Africa lived in savannah environments. Peter Wheeler then thought of the possible advantages or disadvantages of ‘a bipedal primate subjected to the harsh climates of environments lacking the protection of vegetation cover.
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After a thorough study of the physiology of thermoregulation Wheeler concluded that a bipedal primate may be more efficient than a quadruped in terms of regulating its body temperature in tropical and subtropical open environments. On the ground, the air is warmer and calmer. Quadrupeds expose more body surface to the weather and therefore lose more water. Accordingly, a bipedal primate needs less food and less water to get around, although it does so less quickly than a quadruped in the race.
Duncan Mitchell and his team demonstrated that baboons withstand life in savannahs very well, except when water is scarce, and supported Wheeler’s hypothesis with the idea that hominins’ free hands could have been used for transport water in times of scarcity. But George Chaplin and his team have also conducted experiments, in which they demonstrate similar energy efficiency in the open, warm environments of African savannas, whether bipedal or quadrupedal.