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The fingers of the violinists Learning causes structural changes in the brain, as Ramón y Cajal stated in 1894. For example, the part of the cortex that controls the four fingers of the left hand of professional violinists. Who begin their training intensive at an early age is five times greater than in people. Who do not play any string instrument.

Example: London taxi drivers A recent study from University College London, published in 2000, revealed a surprising fact. London taxi drivers have a slightly larger hippocampus than other people of the same age. Being a taxi driver in London is not just anything. To obtain the license, you must pass a very tough exam after preparing for two years and know. In detail the twenty-five thousand streets of the city and its itineraries.

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This research, led by Sweden phone number Eleanor Maguire.  Found using magnetic resonance imaging that a portion of the hippocampus of sixteen taxi drivers had a larger volume . Than the same area in a control group. This is an obvious case of neural plasticity. Thanks to which the brain adapts according to the use given to it. Kandel identified the molecular mechanisms by . Which information is transferred from short-term to long-term memory through exercise.

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For this the hippocampus plays a prominent role. Kandel also showed that an event with a strong emotional charge takes a shortcut and is stored directly in long-term memory. So the amygdala is very important. At the same time, in close connection with this long-term memory function. The hippocampus is crucial for spatial orientation or navigation in humans and animals.

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Experiment: The Morris Maze If the hippocampus is experimentally injured in rats and mice, they are unable to record and remember new spatial learning. A typical test is the so-called Morris maze consisting of a circular pool filled with white opaque water. In one area of the pool there is a submerged platform not visible from the surface. When he first lets go of the rodent, he swims frantically and erratically across the pool until he stumbles upon the platform and stops on it.

At each rehearsal the mouse takes less time to find the platform, and is finally able to swim straight to the platform because it remembers the path. However, animals that have had their hippocampus damaged cannot improve their performance and are unable to record new information and learn the task. 9. Working memory and long-term memory The prefrontal cortex performs multiple functions and also coordinates the different brain areas that make up working memory or short-term memory.

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